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First I have to introduce you to some native Roman ingredients, such as:

Caroenum: Boiled must (you have to boil the new wine or grape juice
until it is only half the amount you started with).

Defritum: Either thick fig syrup, or must that's boiled until you
have only a third of the amount with which you started.

Liebstoeckl: I didn't find an English translation. In Latin it's
called 'levisticum officinale'. It's an umbelliferous plant with
yellowish flowers. Its dried roots are used as spice. It seems to be a
kind of celery.

Liquamen: a salty fish sauce. Most of the time you can replace it by

Passum: Very sweet wine sauce, made by boiling the must (new wine or
grape juice) to thicken it. (maybe add honey? - just my guess)

Poleiminze: A kind of mint that's growing in inundated areas. Just
replace it by ordinary mint.

Saturei: I didn't find an English translation. In Latin it's called
'satureia hortensis'. It's a violet or white flowered kind of labiate
plants which grows mainly in Southern Europe. It's used as a spice
plant, especially for bean dishes.

Silphium: Its other names are 'Laser' or 'ferula asa foetida'. I've
noticed that it's also called 'hing' in the Indian cuisine. It is an
onion and garlic substitute and should be used rather sparingly because
of its very strong taste and smell.

5ml = 1 tsp
15ml = 1 tblsp
28.3g = 1 ounce ( ==> 100g = 3.5 ounces )
454g = 1 pound ( ==> 1kg = 2.2 pound )
250ml = 1 cup
1 l = 4 cups
180 deg C = 350 deg F
220 deg C = 425 deg F

ISICIA OMENTATA (a kind of Roman Burgers)

500g minced meat
1 french roll, soaked in white wine
1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper
50 ml Liquamen (can be replaced by 1/2 tsp salt + a little white wine)
some stone-pine kernels and green peppercorns
a little Caroenum
Baking foil

Mix minced meat with the soaked french roll. Ground spices and mix
into the meat. Form small burgers and put pine kernels and peppercorns
into them. Put them into baking foil and grill them together with

PEPONES ET MELONES (Water and Honey Melons)

1/2 honeydew melon \ both peeled, diced and seeded
1/2 watermelon /
500 ml Passum
a little bit of honey (or Passum)
1 tblsp minced parsley
1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper
a little bit of Liquamen, or a dash of salt
Poleiminze, Silphium, vinegar, if wanted

Cook diced melons in a pan together with spices and herbs until
done. Sometimes Silphium is added.

PATINA DE PISCICULIS (Soufflee of Small Fishes)

(Apic. 4, 2, 30)

500g boiled fillet of small fishes or whole sardelles
150g dried raisins (sultanas)
1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper
1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
1 tblsp oregano
2 small diced onions
200ml oil
50ml Liquamen, or 1/2 tsp salt
some cornstarch

Mix raisins, pepper, Liebstoeckl, oregano, onion, wine, Liquamen and oil
together and put in a casserole. Cook until done. Then put small boiled
fish fillets or boiled small whole fishes into it. Thicken with a bit of
cornstarch and serve.

PATINA DE PIRIS (Pear Soufflee)

1kg pears (peeled and without core)
6 eggs
4 tblsp honey
100ml Passum
a little bit oil
50ml Liquamen, or 1/4 tsp salt
1/2 tsp ground cumin
ground pepper to taste

Mesh cooked and peeled pears (without core) together with pepper,cumin,
honey, Passum, Liquamen and a bit of oil. Add eggs and put into a
casserole. Cook approximately 30 minutes on small to moderate heat.
Serve with a bitt of pepper sprinkled on the soufflee.

MINUTAL MARINUM (Seafood Fricassee)

500g fish fillet (e.g. salmon)
250ml white wine
500ml beef broth
3 leek branches (I hope branch is the correct expression...)
100ml oil
Liquamen or salt, coriander, pepper, Liebstoeckl, Oregano to taste
a little bit of starch or flour to thicken the sauce

Put the fish in a pan, add Liquamen, oil, wine and broth. Chop leek
branched and coriander. Chop fillets into a kind of fish goulash.
Cook approximately 30 minutes on small to moderate heat. When well done
ground coriander, Liebstoeckl and oregano and add to the fish fricassee.
Boil again shortly. Then thicken sauce with starch, sprinkle pepper on
the fricasse and serve.

GUSTUM DE PRAECOQUIS (Starter with Apricots)

1kg firm ripe apricots or nectarines
200ml white wine
250ml Passum
1 peppermint tea bag (portion for one cup)
pepper, Liquamen or salt, cornstarch, a little vinegar and honey

Wash, cut and stone apricots. Put them with a little cold water in a pan.
Ground pepper and dried mint (that's where the tea bag comes handy...),
add Liquamen, honey, Passum, wine and vinegar. Pour into the pan with a
little oil. Cook approximately 20 minutes on small to moderate heat.
After it boiled add a bit of cornstarch to thicken the sauce, sprinkle
with pepper and serve.


500g soybeans with pod, or green beans
50ml Liquamen, or 1/2 tsp salt with 50ml wine
1-2 tblsp oil
1 tblsp minced coriander leaves (or 1/2 tblsp ground coriander seed)
1 tsp cumin seeds
1/2 minced branch of leek

Cook beans with Liquamen, oil, leek and spices. Serve.

PULLUM FRONTONIANUM (Chicken a la Fronto)

1 fresh chicken (approx. 1-1.5kg)
100ml oil
200ml Liquamen, or 200ml wine + 2 tsp salt
1 branch of leek
fresh dill, Saturei, coriander, pepper to taste
a little bit of Defritum

Start to fry chicken and season with a mixture of Liquamen and oil,
together with bunches of dill, leek, Saturei and fresh coriander. Then
cook approximately 1 hour with 220 deg C in the oven. When the chicken
is done, moisten a plate with Defritum, put chicken on it, sprinkle
pepper on it, and serve.

PULLUS FUSILIS (Chicken With Liquid Filling)

1 fresh chicken (approx. 1-1.5kg)
300g minced meat (half beef, half pork)
100g groats (of oat)
2 eggs
250ml white wine
1 tblsp oil
1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
1/4 tsp ground ginger
1/4 tsp ground pepper
1 tsp green peppercorns
50g stone-pine kernels
Liquamen or salt to taste

Ground pepper, Liebstoeckl, ginger, minced meat and cooked groats. Add
eggs and mix until you have a smooth mass. Season with Liquamen, add oil,
whole peppercorns and stone-pine kernels. Fill this dough into the
chicken. Cook approximately 1 hour with 220 deg C in the oven.

DULCIA DOMESTICA (Housemade Dessert)

200g fresh or dried dates
50g coarsely ground nuts or stone-pine kernels
a little bit salt
honey, or red wine with honey (to stew)

Take the stones out of the dates and fill them with nuts or stone-pine
kernels. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the filled dates and stew them in
honey or honey-sweetened red wine. The dates have to be cooked in on
low heat until their paring starts to come off (approximately 5-10

You may also fill some dates with ground pepper. (I wonder how this
might taste - but that's a suggestion made in the original recipe.)

ALITER DULCIA (Another Kind of Dessert)

250g coarsely ground nuts
100g coarsely ground stone-pine kernels
3-4 tblsp honey
1 tsp minced rue
50ml Passum
50ml milk
2 eggs
honey to drip on afterwards
a small amound of ground pepper

Mesh pepper, pine kernels, honey, rue and Passum with milk and eggs, and
boil the dough. Serve topped with honey and sprinkle with pepper.

TIROPATINAM (A Kind of Soufflee)

500ml milk
6 eggs
3 tblsp honey
a little bit of ground pepper

Sweeten milk with honey, add eggs and mix together until smooth. Cook
on low heat until stiff, sprinkle pepper on it and serve.

OVA SFONGIA EX LACTE (Pancakes with Milk)

8 eggs
600ml milk
100ml oil
a little bit honey
a little bit ground pepper

Mix eggs, milk and oil until you have a pancake dough. Fry in a pan
and serve topped with honey and a little pepper.

IN OVIS APALIS (Boiled Eggs)

8 hard boiled eggs (not too well done - boil ca. 4 minutes)
50g stone-pine kernels
honey, pepper, vinegar, Liebstoeckl, Liquamen (or salt) to taste

Dressing for boiled eggs: Mix together pepper, Liebstoeckl, soaked pine
kernels. Add honey and vinegar and season with Liquamen. Serve together
with the eggs.


800g - 1kg veal
300g dried raisins (sultanas)
1 tblsp honey
2 tblsp vinegar
200ml wine
100ml oil
100ml Defritum
100ml Liquamen (or 1tsp salt)
pepper, celery seeds, Liebstoeckl, cumin, oregano, dried onion to taste

Fry veal in olive oil until well done. Mix raisins, wine, vinegar,
honey, oil, Liquamen and spices together in an extra pan, shortly boil
the sauce. Pour over the veal, then leave the meat for 10 minutes in
the sauce and cook on low heat. Serve.


800g - 1kg veal
pepper, Liebstoeckl, cumin, celery seeds to taste
2 tblsp honey
2 tblsp vinegar
100ml oil
100ml Liquamen (or 100ml white wine + 1 tsp salt)
a little bit of cornstarch

Cook the veal for about 1 1/2 hour until well done. Mix together honey,
vinegar, oil, ligamen and spices in an extra pan. Boil the sauce only
shortly and thicken it with cornstarch. Then pour sauce over the veal
and let boil on low heat for another 10 minutes. Serve.


10 lamb cutlets
1 l white wine
100ml oil
2 big onions, diced
2 tblsp ground coriander
1 tsp ground pepper
1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
1 tsp ground cumin
200ml Liquamen (or 2 tsp salt)

Put cutlets into pot, together with diced onion and spices. Add Liquamen,
oil and wine. Cook 45-60 minutes. Pour sauce into a pan and thicken it
with starch. Serve cutlets together with the sauce.

IN MITULIS (Sea Mussels)

1kg fresh sea mussels
100ml Liquamen
1 branch of leek, finely minced
1 tsp cumin
200ml Passum
1 tblsp minced Saturei
500ml white wine
ca. 500ml water

First water mussels, and clean them. Mix together Liquamen, wine,
water, Passum and spices. Boil the broth for about 20 minutes, then add
mussels. Boil additional 10 minutes. Serve.


500g cooked tuna fillet
1/2 tsp ground pepper
1/2 tsp Liebstoeckl
1/2 tsp thyme
1/2 tsp oregano
1/2 tsp rue
150g dates (without stones)
1 tblsp honey
4 hard boiled eggs (in quarters)
50ml white wine
2 tblsp wine vinegar
50ml Defritum
2-3 tblsp green olive oil

Cook tuna fillet. Mesh fillet together with dates, honey, wine, vinegar,
Defritum and oil. Put mass into a bowl and garnish with egg quarters.

SCILLAS (Big Shrimps)

500g cooked and prepared big shrimps
1 tsp green pepper
1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
1/2 tsp ground celery seeds
2-3 tblsp vinegar
100ml Liquamen (or 1/2 tsp salt)
4-5 hacked hard-boiled egg yolks

Cook shrimps. Then ground pepper, celery seeds and Liebstoeckl. Pour
vinegar, Liquamen and egg yolks over it and mix thoroughly. Pour the
mixture over the shrimpsand serve.

MUSTACEI (= Must Rolls)

(Cato: de agricultura, 121)

500g wheat flour
300ml grape juice (or young wine)
2 tblsp anise seeds
2 tblsp cumin seeds
100g lard
50g grated cheese (sheep's cheese would be best)
20 bay leaves

Pour some must over the flour, add anise and cumin seeds, the lard
and cheese. Work it together until you have a reasonable dough.
Form rolls, then put one bay leaf under each of them.

Bake 30-35 minutes at 180 deg C.

It's better to make the must rolls with yeast dough, because then
they can be kept longer, and they are not so hard. To make the
yeast dough, add 40g yeast to the flour + grape juice, leave it a
while until you continue like above.


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