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Print this Recipe    DEMI-GLACE

GLACE DE VIANDE
SAUCE TOMATE
ON SPLITTING BONES

(taken without permission, so please *always* attribute this properly to
Raymond Sokolov's _The Saucier's Apprentice_. Thanks!)

DEMI-GLACE, JUS DE VEAU, AND GLACE DE VIANDE

Sauces made from demi-glace have a body, a monumental size to
them, which cannot be produced with even the finest jus de veau lie. And
although in this book the recipes for small brown sauces call in every
case for _either_ demi-glace or jus de veau, you ought, at least once in
your cooking life, to follow the longer process for demi-glace through to
its magnificent finish.
At the risk of scaring people off demi-glace altogether, but in
order to give a straightforward forecast of what is involved, I have
printed the entire marathon as one continuous operation, instead of
dividing it up into deceptively separate packages (stock, espagnole, roux,
and demi-glace) as most classic sources do.
Look closely at the text, and you will see that it takes time but
does not require the precision of many cooking jobs at which you are
already adept. Moreover, if you simply will not give up the full amount
of time for the whole master recipe, stop after you have reached the
espagnole stage. You will end up with a very nice mother sauce, and you
will have twice as much, in volume, as you would if you pressed on to the
end. Espagnole can be used interchangeably with demi-glace and jus de veau
in the small sauce recipes.

GLACE DE VIANDE

You may want to reserve 1 quart of your stock for making glace de
viande (meat glaze). Glace de viande is simply stock reduced by
three-quarters (in this case, to 1 cup) or until it turns syrupy and coats
the back of a metal spoon. An intense source of flavor, it is called for
in several of the recipes that follow. The reduction goes so far that
there is some risk of burning the stock, and you should be prepared to
keep transferring it to ever-smaller saucepans. Pour the completed glace
de viande into a wide-mouthed jar, cool uncovered, then seal and
refrigerate. It will solidify and keep almost indefinitely. If molding
occurs, run hot water into the jar and wash it away. The glace de viande
will still be wholesome underneath.
Whether you are making stock, jus de veau, espagnole, or glace de
viande, do not be tempted to add salt. Salt has been intentionally
omitted from these recipes. It will be added to the small sauces. Mother
sauces have to be reduced too significantly; salting them is dangerous,
because the salt does not disappear during reduction. It stays there and
its taste intensifies in direct proportion to the degree of reduction.
Indeed, one of the principal advantages of homemade over commercial stocks
is that they can be severely reduced without turning to brine.

DEMI-GLACE
(HALF-GLAZE)
_
13 pounds beef shin, with bones |
cut into 3-inch pieces | or see step 1
13 pounds veal shank, with bones | for alternative
cut into 3-inch pieces _|
8 tablespoons (1 stick) butter
2 pounds carrots, peeled and sliced in rounds
10 medium onions, peeled and sliced
1 1/2 pounds pork rind, cut into 3-inch squares
1 fresh pig's foot (optional), split
1 bunch parsley
1 tablespoon plus 1 teaspoon fresh or 1 1/4 teaspoons dried thyme
14 bay leaves
1 clove garlic, finely chopped
1 pound unsalted butter
3 3/4 cups sifted all-purpose flour
1/4 pound salt pork, diced
2 recipes Sauce Tomate [follows at the end of this
document - hk], or 4 pounds whole canned Italian
tomatoes, drained, seeded, and finely chopped
1 cup Madeira

1. Cut meat away from the beef and veal bones. (A perfectly
acceptable sauce can be made entirely from the equivalent weight of beef
and veal bones, without meat.) Slice meat into 2-inch cubes. Your
butcher may be willing to separate the meat from the bones. He may, if
you are on excellent terms, be willing to split the bones and splinter
them with a cleaver. Otherwise you may want to consider carefully whether
to splinter them yourself [directions follow at the end of this document -
hk]. Splintered bones offer far greater surface area to be browned (which
will improve the color of the sauce), and they will yield up their gelatin
more efficiently. But unsplit bones will still make an admirable stock.
2. Preheat the oven to 400 degrees.
3. Brown bones in a roasting pan, in batches. Do not use more than
one level of the oven at a time. Roast the bones until they have turned a
deep caramel color, turning them over once. Keep looking in the oven to
make sure they are not burning.
4. While the bones are browning, set a 35- to 40-quart stock pot
over as many burners as it will straddle (two 20-quart pots will work as
well so long as you divide all quantities in the succeeding steps evenly
between the two pots), fill it with 16 quarts (4 gallons or 64 cups) of
cold water, cover, and bring to a full, rolling boil. This may take as
long as 45 minutes.
5. While you are browning the bones and waiting for the water to
boil, melt the 8 tablespoons of butter in a large skillet and saute 1 1/2
pounds of the carrot rounds and 8 of the sliced onions together until the
onions are transparent. If the stock pot is covering all of your burners,
push it off of one of them so that you can do this and the next step.
Replace it, if it hasn't boiled by then.
6. Blanch the pork rind in enough simmering, unsalted water to
cover, for 5 minutes. Drain and reserve.
7. When the water boils, move the pot so that it covers only one or,
at most, two burners. Add the browned bones (discarding any burned
pieces, which will contribute nothing except a burned taste), the sauteed
carrot rounds and onion slices, the blanched pork rind, the split pig's
foot (if used), the parsley, 1 tablespoon of the fresh or 1 teaspoon of
the dried thyme, 12 of the bay leaves, and the garlic.
8. Return to the boil, reduce heat and simmer for 12 to 15 hours,
half covered. This can be done overnight, but experience suggests that if
you begin the slow simmering in the morning, that leaves ample waking time
for occasional supervision of the liquid level, which can more
conveniently be topped up with boiling water little by little rather than
all at once the next morning. Also, if you simmer by day, you will then
have the late night and early morning for cooling the stock, a lengthy but
automatic process that does not require your presence.
9. While the stock simmers, brown the meat cubes on all sides in a
heavy pan. As with the bones, successful browning is essential to the
color of the sauce. Rendered fat from the meat cubes themselves
eliminates the necessity for oil, except perhaps to get the first batch
going. Do not crowd the pan. High heat is essential to browning. The
cubes should stick to the surface of the pan and turn a caramel color
before you turn them. A cube has six sides, and all of them are equal in
importance. Reserve the browned meat in a large bowl.
10. Two hours before the bones have finished simmering, add the
browned meat cubes to the stock. Bring to a full boil again, skim, reduce
heat and simmer for the remaining time, half covered. Note the new water
level. It should be maintained with additions of boiling water as before.
11. Clarify the unsalted butter. Cut it into chunks, melt it in a
saucepan, and then let stand in an untrafficked place for 30 minutes,
while the white milk solids settle out. Some milk solids will float to
the surface. Skim them away and discard them. Spoon the clarified butter
into a clean container (or directly into a clean skillet), leaving all
solid debris on the bottom of the saucepan. You will probably have
slightly more clarified butter than the 22 tablespoons you need for the
roux for this recipe. Refrigerate the excess. The surplus is
intentional, so that the most profligate clarifier will end up with the
necessary minimum.
12. Make a brown roux. Heat the 22 tablespoons of clarified butter
(1 cup plus 6 tablespoons), in a _heavy_ skillet. Remove the skillet from
heat and whisk in all the flour as quickly as you can, to make a
homogeneous, buttery paste. Cook the roux over medium-low heat, stirring
occasionally, until it begins to turn a nut brown. During the final
stages of this slow, possibly hour-long process, you must stir the roux
frequently to prevent burning. Lower heat so that you can control the
coloration. Good brown roux will look almost the same color as chocolate.
Discard any burned particles. They will transmit their taste to the
sauce. Also, burned roux will not thicken the sauce.
13. Remove finished roux from the skillet immediately, cool, and
reserve in the refrigerator.
14. When the stock has finished simmering, remove as many solid
ingredients as you can with a skimmer. Discard everything but the meat
cubes, which can be eaten as they are, hot from the pot, or ground up for
croquettes and patties.
15. Strain the stock through a chinois. Ladle out a quart at a time
with a saucepan or dipper. The stock will cool faster if strained into
several smaller pots or bowls; you'll need a total capacity of about 15
quarts. Do _not_ cover these pots until the stock has cooled or it will
curdle.
16. Early the next morning, refrigerate the stock, so that the fat
that has risen to the top will solidify for easy removal. Fat-free stock
can be frozen or it can be kept in the refrigerator, so long as you reboil
it every 2 or 3 days. You can also remove fat from liquid,
room-temperature stock with a flat spoon and soak up the last traces by
running sheets of paper toweling over the surface. You will have at least
one more chance to remove fat, so don't be compulsive about trapping every
last globule at this point. You should, however, get rid of virtually all
of it.
17. On the day you choose to press on to the espagnole stage, put 7
quarts of the fat-free stock into a clean stock pot (of at least 20
quarts) over high heat.
18. While the stock heats up, make a mirepoix. Heat the salt pork
in a heavy enameled or cast-iron skillet (tinned copper surfaces will
bubble under the ensuing heat), discard pork cubes as they brown, and use
the rendered fat to saute the remaining carrots and onions until the
onions are transparent. Drain well.
19. Just before the stock begins to simmer, pour a quart or so of it
over the roux in a saucepan. Whisk until the roux has dissolved. Use
more stock, if necessary. Then pour the mixture back into the stock pot
and whisk until thoroughly blended with the stock. Bring to a full boil,
lower heat and simmer slowly, uncovered.
20. Add the mirepoix as well as the remaining thyme and bay leaves.
21. Skim every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Strain through a chinois,
pressing lightly on the vegetables to extract juices. Wash out the stock
pot.
22. Return the strained, thickened stock to the stock pot. Add 2
more quarts of unthickened, fat-free stock. Bring to a boil once more.
Reduce heat and simmer for 2 more hours, skimming regularly.
23. Stir in the tomato sauce or tomatoes and continue to simmer and
skim for another hour. The scum will have changed to red from the
tomatoes. The sauce should already be of an impressive quality, rich and
substantial, brown and aromatic.
24. Strain through a chinois lined with muslin or a clean dish towel
into a clean pot that will hold 8 quarts or more. If the sauce has not
already reduced to 5 quarts, do so over high heat, skimming frequently.
You now have espagnole.
25. To make demi-glace, add the remaining fat-free, unthickened
stock to the espagnole. Boil, reduce heat and simmer until the liquid
reduces to slightly less than 5 quarts. Skim throughout the reduction.
26. Strain through a chinois lined with muslin or a clean dish towel
into a clean pot. Stir in the Madeira. Let cool, uncovered, to room
temperature. There should not be any fat risen to the surface, but if
there is, remove it with great scruple. Pour the demi-glace into small
(1- or 2-cup) containers, cover, and freeze.
MAKES 5 QUARTS (20 CUPS)

SAUCE TOMATE

1 ounce (about 1 tablespoon) diced bacon
2 tablespoons butter
1 small carrot, peeled and finely diced
1 small onion, peeled and finely diced
1 bay leaf, crumbled
1 sprig fresh or 1/4 teaspoon dried thyme
3 pounds fresh tomatoes or canned Italian tomatoes, seeded and chopped
1 3/4 cups chicken stock, homemade [Sokolov's recipe does not
follow - hk] or canned
1 small clove garlic, peeled and crushed
1 tablespoon sugar
1 tablespoon salt
1 pinch pepper

1. Blanch the bacon, in simmering water for 10 minutes. Drain.
2. Preheat oven to 300 degrees.
3. In a small skillet, brown the bacon lightly in the butter. Then
add the carrot, onion, bay leaf, and thyme. Saute until onions have
turned golden. Transfer to a heavy, nonaluminum pot.
4. Add all the remaining ingredients. Bring to a boil, stirring.
Cover and cook in oven for 3 hours.
5. Push through a chinois. Let cool. Freeze in small containers.
MAKES ABOUT 2 CUPS

ON SPLITTING BONES

This is exhausting and even dangerous work until you get the hang of
it. Bone chips fly here and there. Therefore, it is a good idea to
protect your kitchen by spreading newspaper everywhere around you and even
taping it to nearby walls. Put on goggles to protect your eyes. Do your
pounding on an expendable old cutting board, and buy the heaviest cleaver
you can find. The weight of the cleaver does the work.
Stand the bone on end (or hold it on end if it is long and you are
confident of your aim). Bring the cleaver down hard so that it cuts into
the bone and sticks there. The raise the cleaver and the attached bone
and smash the bone against the board, again and again, until the bone
splits. Then splinter the halves of the bone into smaller pieces. Don't
bother to splinter the joints. It can be done but it isn't worth the
trouble.

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